Note: The winder calculations on this page are based on the 48 step (7.5 deg) motors running in full step mode and the 32 threads per inch threaded carriage rod I am currently using.


Wire
Gauge
Carr.
Steps
Carr.
Travel
Distance
Wire
Turns
per
inch
Carr.
Steps
per
inch
21 48 0.031248 32 1536
22 42 0.027342 36 1512
23 38 0.024738 40 1520
24 34 0.022134 45 1530
25 30 0.019530 51 1530
26 28 0.018228 54 1512
27 24 0.015624 64 1536
28 22 0.014322 69 1518
29 20 0.013020 85 1520
30 18 0.011718 96 1530
31 16 0.010416 109 1536
32 14 0.009114 109 1526
33 12 0.007812 128 1536
34 12 0.007812 128 1536
35 10 0.006510 153 1530
36 10 0.006510 153 1530
37 8 0.005208 192 1536
38 8 0.005208 192 1536
39 6 0.003906 256 1536
40 6 0.003906 256 1536


Wire
Gauge
Carr.
Steps
AddH
Ratio
DropH
Ratio
DropL
Ratio
21 48 1 0 0
22 42 1 8 0
23 38 1 6 24
24 34 1 4 24
25 30 1 3 24
26 28 1 3 12
27 24 2 0 0
28 22 2 24 0
29 20 2 12 0
30 18 2 8 0
31 16 3 0 0
32 14 3 24 0
33 12 4 0 0
34 12 4 0 0
35 10 4 24 0
36 10 4 24 0
37 8 6 0 0
38 8 6 0 0
39 6 8 0 0
40 6 8 0 0

Wind Ratio Setting Reference

Wire gauge (AWG).

The carriage steps and carriage travel distance per wire turn are achieved using the AddH Ratio, DropH Ratio, and DropL Ratio settings in the table.

The Wire Turns per Inch column numbers are rounded down and the Carriage Steps per Inch column numbers are calculated using the rounded down Wire Turns per Inch column numbers so these numbers are for 1 inch wide coils.

For larger width coils calculate the wire turns and total carriage steps using the example below:

26 Gauge

Coil width / Carriage Travel = Wire Turns

2" / 0.018228 = 109.72

Wire Turns * Carriage Steps per turn = Carriage Width Steps

109 * 28 = 3052


22 gauge wire wound on a spool by the coil winder.

Here is a sample of  22 gauge wire wound on a 1 inch wide spool with the carriage width steps set to 1533 steps.

The settings used below give a wind ratio of 1.143 : 1 or 42 carriage steps per winder turn giving .0273 inch per winder turn.

AddH Ratio 1
DropH Ratio 8
DropL Ratio 0


26 gauge wire wound on a spool by the coil winder.

Two layers of wire wound and a third layer started, 26 gauge wire wound on a 1 inch wide spool with the carriage width steps set to 1596 steps.

The settings used below give a wind ratio of 1.714 : 1 or 28 carriage steps per winder turn giving .0182 inch per winder turn.

AddH Ratio 1
DropH Ratio 3
DropL Ratio 12


30 gauge wire wound on a spool by the coil winder.

One layer of wire wound and a second layer started, 30 gauge wire wound on a 1 inch wide spool with the carriage width steps set to 1584 steps.

The settings used below give a wind ratio of 2.667 : 1 or 18 carriage steps per winder turn giving .0117 inch per winder turn.

AddH Ratio 2
DropH Ratio 8
DropL Ratio 0



Here are the calculations needed to set up the PIC controlled winder.

For the actual diameter of the enamel coated wire, the four different wires I have range from 5 to 7 percent thicker than the wire diameter itself listed in the awg gauge to diameter table.


Wire diameter / travel distance of 1 carriage step = carriage steps per 1 wire turn.

Pick a ratio where the carriage steps per wire turn are equal to or greater than the wire diameter to carriage step per wire turn calculation above.


Coil width / Carriage Travel = wire turns per layer


Wire turns X Carriage steps per turn = Total carriage steps


The total carriage width steps will probably need to be tweaked to get the wire layers to lay flat and uniform.

If more wire turns are wound on a spool than can fit the wire will start winding on top of the current layer before the next layer starts and mess up the uniformity of the wind.

If not enough wire turns are wound in the current layer some winding from the next layer will drop into the gap and mess up the uniformity of the wind.

For the 22 gauge wire I wound on the one inch spool I added carriage steps of only 1/2 wire turn or 21 carriage steps to get the layers uniform but that probably won't be necessary for the higher gauge wires.

The initial carriage position will also affect the winding uniformity.



Here is an example for setting up the PIC controlled winder.


26 gauge wire:

actual measured diameter = 0.0170 inch.


0.0170 / 0.000651 = 26.11 carriage steps per wire turn.

I will set the winder to 28 carriage steps per turn using: AddH Ratio 1, DropH Ratio 3, and DropL Ratio 12


1 inch / 0.018228 inch = 54.86 turns so 54 wire turns will fit a 1 inch spool.


54 X 28 = 1512 carriage width steps


Example: 26 gauge

If the carriage width steps are set to 1512 per inch and you have a gap in the winding of three wire turns.

From the above reference table the carriage steps per turn is 28.

For each wire turn you need to the spool layer you need to add 28 steps to the 1512.

1512 + 28 + 28 + 28 = 1596

The wires per layer count will now be three higher than listed in the table.

Likewise if there are too many wire turns per layer on the spool subtract 28 steps for each turn you want to remove.



The coil width the calculation is based on the 48 step (7.5 degree) stepper motor and the 10-32 threaded steel carriage rod. The threaded rod will move the carriage 1 / 32" per turn or 0.03125". The 0.3125" / 48 steps = 0.000651" per motor step. If you take 1"/ 0.000651 = 1536 steps per inch.



Information on the Wind Ratios

The AddH Ratio setting adds a carriage step on the high number in the count. A value of one will step the carriage motor each time the winder motor steps, 1 to 1 ratio. A value of two will step the carriage at the count of two giving a 2 to 1 winder to carriage step ratio etc.

The DropH Ratio will drop a carriage step on the high number of the count. With a setting of four the carriage will drop a step at the count of four.

The DropL Ratio setting drops a carriage step when it is at a value of 1.
If the DropL Ratio is set to 8 it will drop a carriage step each time it reaches one after counting to the number 8.

The AddH Ratio, DropH Ratio, and the DropL Ratio all keep separate counts and all are reset low after each complete winder turn.




To use the pic based control unit you want measure the actual diameter of the wire your winding and use a AddH Ratio, DropH Ratio, and a DropL Ratio that will give you a carriage travel distant about equal to or slightly greater than the actual diameter of the wire.

The coil winder ratios in the table to the right are based on selecting the AddH Ratio in the left column and keeping the Drop Ratio set to zero on the controller.


AddH
Ratio
Menu #
Wind
Ratio
Wind.
Steps
Carr.
Steps
Carriage
Travel / Turn
1 1:1 48 48 0.031248
2 2:1 48 24 0.015624
3 3:1 48 16 0.010416
4 4:1 48 12 0.007812
6 6:1 48 8 0.005208
8 8:1 48 6 0.003906
12 12:1 48 4 0.002604
16 16:1 48 3 0.001953




The coil winder ratios in the table to the right are based on selecting the DropH Ratio in the left column and keeping the AddH Ratio number set to one on the winder controller.

DropL Ratio will give the same ratios as DropH Ratio if the AddH Ratio is set to 1 and DropL Ratio is set to 0.


DropH
Ratio
or
  DropL
Ratio
Menu #
Wind
Ratio
Wind.
Steps
Carr.
Steps
Carriage
Travel / Turn
0 1:1 48 48 0.031258
2 2:1 48 24 0.015624
3 1.5:1 48 32 0.020832
4 1.33:1 48 36 0.023436
6 1.2:1 48 40 0.02604
8 1.14:1 48 42 0.027342
12 1.09:1 48 44 0.028644
16 1.067:1 48 45 0.029295




The tables to the right are just a visual reference to how the three wind ratio settings work together.

The AddH Ratio setting adds carriage steps and the DropH and DropL settings are used to drop steps.

The ratio settings in the tables are for the 26 gauge wire settings.


With the settings of:

AddH Ratio 1
DropH Ratio 3
DropL Ratio 12

20 carriage steps are dropped leaving a winder to carriage ratio of 48 winder steps to 28 carriage steps.


W AddH
Ratio
1
Drop
H
3
Drop
L
12
Carriage
Step or
Drop
1 1 1 1 D
2 1 2 2 S
3 1 3 3 D
4 1 1 4 S
5 1 2 5 S
6 1 3 6 D
7 1 1 7 S
8 1 2 8 S
9 1 3 9 D
10 1 1 10 S
11 1 2 11 S
12 1 3 12 D
13 1 1 1 D
14 1 2 2 S
15 1 3 3 D
16 1 1 4 S
17 1 2 5 S
18 1 3 6 D
19 1 1 7 S
20 1 2 8 S
21 1 3 9 D
22 1 1 10 S
23 1 2 11 S
24 1 3 12 D



W AddH
Ratio
1
Drop
H
3
Drop
L
12
Carriage
Step or
Drop
25 1 1 1 D
26 1 2 2 S
27 1 3 3 D
28 1 1 4 S
29 1 2 5 S
30 1 3 6 D
31 1 1 7 S
32 1 2 8 S
33 1 3 9 D
34 1 1 10 S
35 1 2 11 S
36 1 3 12 D
37 1 1 1 D
38 1 2 2 S
39 1 3 3 D
40 1 1 4 S
41 1 2 5 S
42 1 3 6 D
43 1 1 7 S
44 1 2 8 S
45 1 3 9 D
46 1 1 10 S
47 1 2 11 S
48 1 3 12 D




To the right is a wire gauge table (awg) with a wire diameter column and plus 5% and 10% wire diameter columns that I used to estimate the thickness of the enamel coated magnet wire to create the winder wire gauge to winder ratio settings table.

If you know the wire gauge but don't know the actual magnet wire diameter with enamel coating I have found that the magnet wire that I have and most of the wire that I have referenced fell in the wire diameter plus 5% to 10 % range.


Wire
Gauge
Wire
Diameter
Wire Dia
Plus 5%
Wire Dia
Plus 10%
21 0.0285 0.0299 0.0314
22 0.0254 0.0267 0.0279
23 0.0226 0.0237 0.0249
24 0.0201 0.0211 0.0221
25 0.0179 0.0188 0.0197
26 0.0159 0.0167 0.0175
27 0.0142 0.0149 0.0156
28 0.0126 0.0132 0.0139
29 0.0113 0.0119 0.0124
30 0.01 0.0105 0.011
31 0.0089 0.0093 0.0098
32 0.008 0.0084 0.0088
33 0.0071 0.0075 0.0078
34 0.0063 0.0066 0.0069
35 0.0056 0.0059 0.0062
36 0.005 0.0053 0.0055
37 0.0045 0.0047 0.0050
38 0.004 0.0042 0.0044
39 0.0035 0.0037 0.0039
40 0.0031 0.0033 0.0034







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